Tang sieve, non-invasive DNA, sheep wear, what exactly is checked? After reading the explanation, I finally know how to choose

Tang sieve, non-invasive DNA, sheep wear, what exactly is checked? After reading the explanation, I finally know how to choose

In medicine, women’s childbearing age is divided, and women over 35 years old are called advanced-age women. 

Writer: Wang Xiaoming

Editor: Wang Zhifeng

Finalized: Su Zihou

After a woman is pregnant, a maternity check is essential. But sometimes there are some difficulties, and I don’t know how to choose, especially in the three test items of Down’s screening, non-invasive DNA, and amniocentesis. 

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What is Down’s screening, non-invasive DNA, and amniotic fluid examination? 

In fact, these three tests are mainly to check the chromosomes to determine whether the fetus has Down’s syndrome syndrome and the risk of neural tube defects. If other chromosomes are abnormal, it may also be a pregnancy complications. Symptom. 

Down’s screening is generally performed at 14-20 weeks of gestation. The blood of the pregnant mother is drawn to extract the chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) from the serum. ), the concentration of free estriol (E₃), combined with the age and gestational age of the pregnant woman to analyze the probability of possible fetal defects, the accuracy rate is about 70%. 

Non-invasive DNA is generally tested at 16 to 24 weeks of gestation. The free DNA of the fetus is extracted from the mother’s blood, and the fetus has chromosomal problems at one time. The accuracy rate is 95 %about. 

Amniotic fluid puncture is usually tested in 16-20 weeks. Under the guidance of ultrasound, the doctor punctures the pregnant mother’s abdomen with a puncture needle, extracts a small amount of amniotic fluid, and extracts the fetal DNA contained in it. Or the method of cell culture to detect the chromosomes of the fetus to analyze whether the fetus may have congenital defects, with an accuracy rate of 99%. 

Down Sieve How to choose between examination, non-invasive DNA, and amniocentesis? 

1. Look at age

In medicine, women’s childbearing ages are divided, and women over 35 years old are called advanced-age women. Not only their own quality is reduced, but the chances of pregnancy with fetal defects are also reduced. Will increase accordingly. 

Therefore, if you are between 23 and 34 years old, you can do Down’s screening to determine whether the fetus is developing normally; and if you are 35 years old and above, it is recommended to do non-invasive DNA or amniocentesis. 

If you are an advanced pregnant woman and you have a Down’s screening test in the early stage, it shows a high risk, you need to do amniocentesis to determine the accuracy. 

2. Family genetic history

If there is no genetic history of Down’s syndrome in your family, then early and mid-term Down’s syndrome screening is fine;

If in the family If you have such a genetic history, it is recommended to do non-invasive DNA to see how the results are, and then consider whether to do amniocentesis;

If an abnormality is detected in the first pregnancy, or among the fathers and mothers If a person’s chromosomes are not correct, it is recommended to do amniocentesis. 

3. Economic conditions

If your family’s financial conditions are average, you can choose to do Down’s screening. Although the results are relatively slow, the price is cheap and the accuracy rate is not very low. However, if the test results suggest that the risk is relatively high, it is best to do non-invasive DNA or amniocentesis. Don’t feel bad about money at this time. 

In addition, several important obstetric examinations are essential

1. Four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound (20 to 26 weeks gestation)

It is a medical color ultrasound imaging technology to clearly Observe all aspects of the growth and development of the fetus, such as the trunk, body organs, nervous system, face, etc., to determine whether the fetus has defects, the accuracy rate is about 90%, which has a certain relationship with the doctor’s experience and technology. 

2. Glucose tolerance test (24-28 weeks)

It extracts the blood sugar from the pregnant mother’s blood to determine the probability of the pregnant mother suffering from gestational diabetes and avoid the risk of gestational diabetes. The adverse impacts of the project, corresponding measures can be taken in time. 

3. Fetal heart rate monitoring (36 weeks to delivery)

The fetal heart rate and uterine contraction rate are detected by the fetal heart rate monitor to determine Whether the fetus is hypoxic. 

Under normal circumstances, the fetal heart rate is 120-160 beats/min. It will increase when the fetus is active, and will fall when it is quiet, but the frequency will remain at about 12 hours and 30 beats, but if not More than 10 times, you need to take measures in time. 

In addition, when the pregnant mother has contractions, a line under the fetal heart rate will show an upward trend, and after disappearing, it will return to about 200mmHg. Several kinds of things that babies cannot eat under 1 year old Novice mothers should take a look at food. Don’t step on pits because of ignorance.

Generally speaking, parents will start to feed their babies with complementary foods after their babies are 6 months old. However, some novice mothers may lack knowledge about parenting. It is very possible to give the wrong food to the child. The digestive system of the baby under 1 year old is not yet perfect. Parents must pay attention to the following foods when feeding the baby. 

Food that children under one year old can’t eat

1. Milk

Milk seems to be nutritious, but it is suitable for babies under one year old. Milk It contains a lot of protein and minerals, but it is difficult for the baby’s intestines and stomach to absorb it. Long-term stagnation in the body will easily increase the burden on the kidneys. 

Milk contains less lactose vitamins and lacks trace elements, especially low iron content and low absorption rate, which is not suitable for babies within one year of age. In addition, milk may also be the cause of milk protein allergy. 

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The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that children over 1 year old can drink whole milk, low-fat milk after 2 years old, and skimmed milk after 5 years old. Children under 1 year old can only drink breast milk or infant formula. 

2. Honey

Honey has a laxative effect, but babies under one year old should not eat honey. This is because honey is susceptible to infection with botulinum, plus children The liver’s ability to detoxify is poor, and it can’t detoxify in time after eating, causing mild symptoms of poisoning, especially infants younger than 6 months are more likely to be recruited. 

Infants who accidentally eat honey Symptoms of poisoning may appear within 8 to 36 hours after consumption, such as weakness in sucking milk, difficulty breathing, weak crying, loss of appetite, etc. It is generally accepted internationally that babies before one year old should not eat honey, and babies after one year old can eat a small amount of honey appropriately. 

3. Condiments

The most common condiments are salt, chili, green onions, ginger, garlic, etc. Many elderly people think that adding a little salt to the complementary food makes children strong. The argument is completely absurd. One-year-old babies must have a light diet and try to ensure the original taste of the food. 

Feed the child too early Condiment food will increase the burden on the baby’s kidneys, and severely cause excessive loss of potassium and cause heart muscle failure in the baby. And the taste and smell of babies under the age of 1 have not yet fully developed, and heavy-tasting complementary foods are likely to cause them to have a partial or picky diet. Try to add a little salt after 1 year of age. 

4. Tea water

We Chinese people always like to entertain guests with tea. Some relatives like to tease their children. If you accidentally drink tea for your children, the consequences will be very serious. Because the tannic acid in tea will affect the body’s digestion and absorption of protein and affect the normal development of young children. 

In addition, infants and young children drink tea , The contained components of theophylline and caffeine may cause excessive excitement and rapid heartbeat in children, which is not conducive to the development of nerves. 

Dietary recommendations for infants under 1 year old

1, 0~6 months old infants

The best food for feeding infants under 6 months old is Breast milk, exclusive breastfeeding is the most conducive to the growth and development of young children. It can meet all the needs of the growth and development of this month-old baby. If there is poor breast milk quality, insufficient or exclusive breastfeeding, it is recommended to first infant formula milk powder. It is not advisable to drink milk directly or make adult milk powder. 

It can meet all the nutrients needed for the baby’s growth and development at this stage. If it is not possible to use exclusive breastfeeding, it is recommended to feed infant formula milk powder first, and it is not advisable to feed ordinary milk, adult milk powder and protein powder directly to the baby. 

2, 6 months~ 1-year-old infants

It is recommended that infants from 6 months to 1-year-old be fed with complementary foods on the basis of breast milk. According to the advice of nutrition experts: Children of this age can follow the diet pagoda feeding strategy. 

The first layer: choose breast milk or infant milk powder. 

Second level: Choose cereals, such as bread, dumplings, rice noodles, rotten noodles and so on. 

The third layer: fruits and vegetables Indispensable foods, such as pumpkin puree, potato puree, apple puree, banana puree, etc. Fruits and vegetables are the best source of vitamins, minerals and crude fiber for babies. 

Fourth layer: fish meat, egg yolk, meat paste, 25g~40g per day. 

Fifth layer: Oil, 5g~10g per day, such as peanut oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, etc., 7~8 months old babies can add a small amount of vegetable oil, in order to enhance the taste and increase the baby’s The adaptability of fats, remember not to eat lard and other animal fats. 

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