Tang Si, non-invasive and amniotic fluid puncture, how to choose the most reliable? How to choose the most economical? One-time talk through
Writer: Wang Xiaoming
Editor: Liu Yizhi
Finished: Su Zihou< /p>
Maternity examination is an indispensable item during pregnancy. It allows doctors and mothers to learn about the growth and development of the fetus in time, and take corresponding preventive measures in time, which plays an important role in prenatal and postnatal care.
However, there are many maternity examinations, and some examinations have similar purposes. For example, the three examinations, such as Tang Sieve, non-invasive DNA, and amniocentesis, are mainly used to detect Down’s syndrome in the second trimester. How should mom choose the one that suits her?
All the pictures in this article are from the network, and the pictures and texts are irrelevant
Regarding Tang Si, non-invasive DNA, and amniocentesis
These three tests mainly use the detection of chromosomes to determine whether the fetus has neural tube defects, Down syndrome, etc., if found If it is abnormal, intervention or measures can be carried out in time.
1. Down’s screening
By drawing the pregnant mother’s blood, extracting elements related to the fetus, and combining the pregnant mother’s age, gestational age, weight, etc. to determine the fetus Whether the baby has Down syndrome or other growth defects, the accuracy rate is about 70%.
Generally, this examination is carried out between 14 and 20 weeks of pregnancy. If the result is less than 1:1000, it is low risk. If the result is between 1:271 and 1:1000, it is a critical risk, and it is equal to or greater than 1:270. high risk.
If it is a borderline risk or a high risk, the doctor will perform further amniocentesis or non-invasive DNA to confirm whether the fetus has Down syndrome.
2. Non-invasive DNA
By drawing pregnant mother’s blood, extracting free DNA from it, using high-throughput sequencing, combined with biological information analysis, to understand the chromosome condition of the fetus, so as to determine whether the fetal baby exists 21. The trisomy 18 and 13 are abnormal, and the accuracy rate can reach 98%.
Generally, this examination is performed at 16 to 24 weeks of gestation. The result will be low risk and high risk. If it is high risk, just in case, you need to do amniocentesis for further an examination.
3. Amniotic fluid puncture
Usually guided by ultrasound, the doctor passes a thin and long puncture needle through the pregnant mother’s abdomen, and draws a small amount in the sheep cavity Amniotic fluid from which the fetal DNA is extracted.
Using the method of cell culture, the chromosomes of the fetus are checked to see if there are defects, chromosomal abnormalities, Down syndrome, etc. The accuracy rate is as high as 99%.
This examination is carried out at 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. If an abnormality is detected, the fetus is likely to be a congenital child, and the pregnant mother needs to consider whether to continue the pregnancy.
Tang Si, How to choose non-invasive DNA and amniocentesis?
How to choose the most reliable one?
1. Look at age
Because the body’s functions will degenerate with age, women are no exception. In medicine, the best childbearing age for women is 22-30 years old, and pregnant women over 35 years old will be considered as advanced pregnant women.
If you are an advanced-age pregnant woman, your own functions will decline, and the quality of the eggs you shed will also be easily affected. This will not only affect the chance of conception, but also increase the probability of fetal defects.
Therefore, if the pregnant mother is 22-30 years old, you can choose Down’s screening; but if you are 35 years old and above, it is best to choose non-invasive DNA or amniocentesis to facilitate accurate detection of the fetus.
Furthermore, if you are an advanced-age pregnant woman, the chance of Down’s syndrome in the fetus will be greater. After Down’s screening, it is likely to be a high risk, and you need to do amniocentesis again.
2. Look at the family genetic history
If there is a genetic history of Down’s in a family, then the pregnant woman is more likely to have a fetal illness after pregnancy. In order to avoid If it is wrong, it is best to choose non-invasive DNA. If the result shows a high risk, further amniocentesis is needed.
If there is no history of Down’s disease in the family, pregnant mothers can be screened for Down’s disease first, and this kind of case usually does not happen.
In addition, if the pregnant mother or father-to-be’s chromosomes have abnormalities in their own chromosomes, or the abnormalities are detected when they are pregnant, they can be tested directly with amniocentesis.
How to choose the most economical?
Down’s screening, about 300-500 yuan, the price may be different in each region, for reference only; the price of non-invasive DNA is between 1500-3000 yuan, according to different ages will increase or decrease items; amniotic fluid puncture , The price is around 1800-2000 yuan, there may be regional differences in charges.
If the pregnant mother is over 35 years old or has a family genetic history, it is recommended to choose amniocentesis or non-invasive DNA to save money;
If the pregnant mother is younger than 35 years old and has no family genetic history, you can choose Down’s screening If the result of the check is high risk, then choose non-invasive DNA, which saves the most money;
If the pregnant mother is younger than 35 years old and has a family genetic history, then you can directly choose non-invasive DNA. This saves the most money.
In addition, There are several important excisions during pregnancy
1, NT examination
Usually B-ultrasound detects the thickness of the transparent liquid in the fetal neck. Since this liquid only appears for a short period of time, it needs to be in 11~ 14 weeks.
If the test result is less than 3 cm, it indicates normal, if it exceeds 3 cm, it is likely to indicate abnormal chromosomes of the fetus, and further non-invasive DNA or amniocentesis is required for synthesis before judgment .
2. Four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound
Using four-dimensional imaging technology to observe various aspects of the fetus’s limbs, organs, etc., to understand the developmental situation, usually in 20 to 24 weeks.
If the doctor detects an abnormality, you can go to an experienced doctor in the top three authoritative hospitals to check again. If it is confirmed that there is a defect, you need to take timely measures. Return to Sohu to see more
The baby’s diet changes greatly after 1 year old. “Two supplements, two adjustments and three training”, smart and less sick
Baby’s diet changes greatly after 1 year old. Mastering “two supplements, two adjustments and three training” will make you smarter and less sick.
| Fortunately pregnant sister (senior maternal and child nurse, original is not easy, please do not plagiarize)
1 year old is an important watershed for small babies, which means that they have changed from small babies to toddlers. There have been many new changes in their physical development, which also indicates that their dietary characteristics need to be changed.
1 year old + baby’s developmental characteristics
Most babies will start to erupt after their first molars, which also represents them Their chewing ability has been greatly improved. For the needs of gum exercise, parents do not need to prepare the diet for them as finely as before.
Height and Weight
After the baby reaches one year of age, the speed of height and weight development will slow down, the speed of weight gain is only about 35% of the previous, and the speed of height increase is only 50% of the previous about.
The pictures in this article are all from Internet, graphics and text have nothing to do.
If parents find that after 1 year old, the baby seems not to grow as fast as before, don’t worry too much.
Easier to get sick
Before the baby is 1 year old, the staple food is breast milk. The immune factors in breast milk can help them resist various bacteria and greatly improve the child’s resistance. Reduce the possibility of getting sick.
After the baby is one year old, the nutrition and quantity of breast milk is not enough for them. The baby who eats a lot of other foods and reduces breast milk intake loses part of the protection of immune factors and becomes love sick.
Because of various deficiencies of breast milk, some of the baby’s nutritional elements will be missing. If it is not supplemented in time, the development of the brain, stomach and other parts of the body may be lower than that of other children.
So, eat and drink at this time It is very important to help them improve their resistance and supplement their nutrition.
The feeding characteristics of 1 year old + babies, parents should pay attention to “two supplements, two adjustments and three training”
1) supplement dietary fiber< /p>
Studies have shown that for every three 1-year-old babies, one may not eat enough vegetables every day, which is likely to cause a child’s lack of dietary fiber.
Dietary fiber has the effect of stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestines, inhibiting the growth of bad bacteria and bacteria, and protecting the health of the intestines; it can increase satiety and prevent them from eating too much at one time; It can promote digestion and prevent constipation.
Therefore, parents can give They eat a small handful of fruits and vegetables.
2) Iron supplementation
According to statistics, the anemia rate of babies younger than two years old in my country has reached 31.1%, which means that 1 year old + babies’ iron deficiency It is very serious.
When babies are 6 months old, they need to take iron-rich complementary foods. They will suffer from iron deficiency. It may be because parents only feed their children with pureed vegetables. I have not given my baby iron-supplemented foods such as mashed red meat, pork liver, and mashed chicken liver.
Baby with iron deficiency is prone to lack of energy, loss of appetite, and damage to the nervous system.
Studies have shown that the average intelligence of babies with iron deficiency anemia is 9% lower than that of normal babies.
1) Adjust breast milk to milk
Baby after one year old needs to drink milk and eat dairy products. If you are worried about him being uncomfortable, you can only feed one at a time Little bit. And whether it is breastfeeding, feeding milk, formula milk, it is best to pour them into a cup for them to drink.
Calling a pacifier for a long time may cause tooth decay.
2) Adjust the “complementary food” to the staple food
Before one year old, even if there is complementary food, the demand for breast milk is still 1000ml. After one year old, their demand for breast milk changes. It is 500ml, and breast milk can also be replaced with milk, yogurt, etc.
And their 1/3～2/3 energy and nutrient supply come from food other than milk, so “complementary food” has gradually become a staple food.
The food prepared for the baby also needs more variety, including cereals, meat, poultry and eggs, vegetables, fruits, beans, etc.
Pay attention to the baby’s food must be less salt, less oil, less sugar.
1) To train the baby’s ability to eat by himself
Baby after 1 year old can already grasp things with their hands, so you can let them Eat directly with your hands or with a spoon. It’s okay even if you eat messy at first.
When they are one and a half years old, they will be able to eat smoothly, and when they are two years old, they will be able to eat well.
Training children to eat can not only exercise their brains, but also reduce the workload of parents.
2) Train your baby’s eating habits
At this stage, you can let your children eat at the same table with their parents, and let them learn the correct eating habits of their parents. For example, the time to eat cannot exceed 30 minutes, and they cannot watch TV or play mobile phones while eating.
3) Training the baby’s chewing ability
For babies after 1 year old, because of the eruption of deciduous molars, parents need to prepare large pieces of food for them, but the texture needs to be softer.
Parents can’t give up just because they don’t like large chunks of food.
If the child’s chewing ability is weak, they will be able to eat less food, and the nutrition of too soft and rotten food will also be lost.
The baby is likely to be malnourished because of this.
Diet is very important to children. Parents grasping the right way can help them grow smarter and healthier.
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